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Human Cancer Genome Sequencing Progress

The Genome Institute is involved in a number of cancer genome sequencing projects. Here is an overview of these projects.

Cancer Types: The goal of sequencing such a variety of cancer types is to define all the genetic changes that occur in the cancer cells and to determine the importance of these mutations to improve diagnosis, treatment and prevention of these diseases.

  • AML (Acute Myeloid Leukemia): AML is a cancer that affects the blood cells. AML was the first whole cancer genome sequenced (by The Genome Institute).

  • BRC (Breast): Breast cancer is one of the most genetically well-characterized cancers.

  • EMC (Endometrial):  Endometrial cancer affects the endometrium, the tissue lining a woman's uterus.

  • ESC (Esophageal):  Esophageal cancer affects the esophagus, the muscular tube that moves food from the mouth to the stomach.

  • GBM (Glioblastoma Multiforme): This is the most common and aggressive type of brain tumor.

  • LUC (Lung): Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death in the world.

  • MDS (Myelodysplastic Syndrome): This syndrome affects the blood cells and may lead to AML (Acute Myeloid Leukemia).

  • MEL (Melanoma): Melanoma is a cancer of the skin cells, or melanocytes, and it is responsible for most skin cancer-related deaths.

  • MMY (Multiple Myeloma): This cancer affects the white blood cells in the bone marrow. It is difficult to diagnose and is often an incurable form of cancer.

  • OVC (Ovarian): This is the fifth most common cancer among women and often has a poor outcome.

  • PCA (Pilocytic Astrocytoma): This is often a benign brain tumor that may also be positive for a condition called Neurofibromatosis Type 1, which can predispose patients - often children - to cancer.

  • PNC (Pancreatic): Pancreatic cancer is very difficult to treat and often fatal.

  • PRC (Prostate): Prostate cancer is one of the most treatable forms of cancer, if caught early.

  • SJACT (Adrenocortical Tumor): This cancer affects the adrenal cortex, a steroid hormone-producing tissue. It often affects children under 6. These samples are part of the Pediatric Cancer Genome Project.

  • SJAMLM7 (Acute Myeloid Leukemia M7): This is a rare subtype of pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia. These samples are part of the Pediatric Cancer Genome Project.

  • SJCBF (Core Binding Factor Acute Myeloid Leukemia): This is a form of leukemia that if detected, can result in complete remission. These samples are part of the Pediatric Cancer Genome Project.

  • SJEPD (Ependymoma): This cancer affects the ependyma, a central nervous system tissue. In children these tumors are often found intracranially. These samples are part of the Pediatric Cancer Genome Project.

  • SJETV (ETV-associated ALL): This is a form of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia associated with a fusion between ETV-6 and AML-1. These samples are part of the Pediatric Cancer Genome Project.

  • SJHGG (High Grade Glioma): This type of cancer arises from the glial cells in the brain and tends to have a poor prognosis. These samples are part of the Pediatric Cancer Genome Project.

  • SJHYPO (Hypodiploid Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia): This is a rare form of leukemia characterized by an absence of chromosomes. It primarily affects young adults. These samples are part of the Pediatric Cancer Genome Project.

  • SJINF (Infant Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia): This is the most common type of leukemia in children under age 15. These samples are part of the Pediatric Cancer Genome Project.

  • SJLGG (Low Grade Glioma): This is a slow-growing brain tumor that affects children. It is a very common type of brain tumor in children. These samples are part of the Pediatric Cancer Genome Project.

  • SJMB (Medulloblastoma): This is a severe form of brain tumor that is common among children under age 20. These samples are part of the Pediatric Cancer Genome Project.

  • SJNBL (Neuroblastoma): This cancer develops from nerve tissue and occurs in infants and children. These samples are part of the Pediatric Cancer Genome Project.

  • SJOS (Osteosarcoma): This cancer affects the bone often during rapid growth that occurs during adolescence. These samples are part of the Pediatric Cancer Genome Project.

  • SJPHALL (Ph+ Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia): This is a form of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia associated with the Philadelphia chromosome translocation. These samples are part of the Pediatric Cancer Genome Project.

  • SJRB (Retinoblastoma): This cancer affects the eye's retina and develops mostly in children under the age of 6. These samples are part of the Pediatric Cancer Genome Project.

  • SJRHB (Rhabdomyosarcoma): This soft tissue cancer is most often found in children. These samples are part of the Pediatric Cancer Genome Project.

  • SJTALL (T-cell/Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia): This form of blood cancer affects white blood cells called T cells. These samples are part of the Pediatric Cancer Genome Project.