George Weinstock, Ph.D.,  The Genome Institute

Dr. Weinstock applies high-throughput DNA sequencing, genome-wide analysis, bioinformatics, and other genetic methods to the study of human, model organisms and microbial genomes. His goal is to employ genetic and genomic thinking to important problems in biology. He led one of the first bacterial genome projects, sequencing Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis. He is now a leader of the Human Microbiome Project, studying the collection of microbes that colonize the human body. The goal of this work is to analyze the genomes of these organisms, characterize the communities they form, and measure how communities change in different health and disease states. He was one of the leaders of the Human Genome Project and also the first personal genome project, sequencing Dr. James Watson’s genome using next-generation sequencing technology. He is now leading projects using next-generation sequencing to discover mutations causing human disease.

Currently Professor of Genetics and Professor of Molecular Microbiology at Washington University, Dr. Weinstock was previously Co-Director of the Human Genome Sequencing Center at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, TX and Professor of Molecular and Human Genetics there. Dr. Weinstock received his B.S. degree from the University of Michigan (Biophysics, 1970) and his Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Microbiology, 1977).


title citation publication date
Comparison of whole and acellular bronchoalveolar lavage to oral wash microbiomes. Should acellular bronchoalveolar lavage be the standard? Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2014 Jan;11 Suppl 1:S72-3. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201306-162MG. 2014-01-01
The relationships between environmental bacterial exposure, airway bacterial colonization, and asthma. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014 Apr;14(2):137-42. doi: 10.1097/ACI.0000000000000036. 2014-04-01
Whole-Genome Sequencing of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Cubana Strains Isolated from Agricultural Sources. Genome Announc. 2014 Jan 23;2(1). pii: e01184-13. doi: 10.1128/genomeA.01184-13. 2014-01-23
Exome-Based Mapping and Variant Prioritization for Inherited Mendelian Disorders. Am J Hum Genet. 2014 Feb 19. pii: S0002-9297(14)00054-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2014.01.016. [Epub ahead of print] 2014-02-20
Plant-associated symbiotic burkholderia species lack hallmark strategies required in Mammalian pathogenesis. PLoS One. 2014 Jan 8;9(1):e83779. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0083779. 2014-01-08
Genomics. Genome project standards in a new era of sequencing. Science. 2009 Oct 9;326(5950):236-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1180614. 2009-10-09
TIGRA: A Targeted Iterative Graph Routing Assembler for breakpoint assembly. Genome Res. 2013 Dec 4. [Epub ahead of print] 2013-12-04
Systems biology of the vervet monkey. ILAR J. 2013 Jan;54(2):122-43. doi: 10.1093/ilar/ilt049. 2013-11-01
Epidemiological investigation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from a six-year-long hospital outbreak using high-throughput whole genome sequencing. Euro Surveill. 2013 Oct 17;18(42). pii: 20611. 2013-10-17
Integrative annotation of variants from 1092 humans: application to cancer genomics. Science. 2013 Oct 4;342(6154):1235587. doi: 10.1126/science.1235587. 2013-10-04
A Novel Intronic SNP in the Myosin heavy polypeptide 4 Gene Is Responsible for the Mini-Muscle Phenotype Characterized by Major Reduction in Hindlimb Muscle Mass in Mice. Genetics. 2013 Sep 20. [Epub ahead of print] 2013-09-20
Precise Dissection of an Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak by Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Analysis. J Clin Microbiol. 2013 Sep 18. [Epub ahead of print] 2013-09-18
Targeted high-throughput DNA sequencing for gene discovery in retinitis pigmentosa. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2010;664:325-31. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4419-1399-9_37. 2009-01-01
High-throughput whole-genome sequencing to dissect the epidemiology of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from a hospital outbreak. J Hosp Infect. 2010 May;75(1):37-41. doi: 10.1016/j.jhin.2010.01.012. Epub 2010 Mar 17. 2010-05-01
Daptomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis Diverts the Antibiotic Molecule from the Division Septum and Remodels Cell Membrane Phospholipids. MBio. 2013 Jul 23;4(4). pii: e00281-13. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00281-13. 2013-07-23
Pervasive genetic hitchhiking and clonal interference in forty evolving yeast populations. Nature. 2013 Jul 21. doi: 10.1038/nature12344. [Epub ahead of print] 2013-07-21
Candidate Genes That May Be Responsible for the Unusual Resistances Exhibited by Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 Spores. PLoS One. 2013 Jun 14;8(6):e66012. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0066012. Print 2013. 2013-06-14
Virome genomics: a tool for defining the human virome. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2013 May 22. pii: S1369-5274(13)00063-5. doi: 10.1016/j.mib.2013.04.006. [Epub ahead of print] 2013-05-22
Sixty years of genome biology. Genome Biol. 2013 Apr 25;14(4):113. [Epub ahead of print] 2013-04-25
Whole genome sequence of the treponema fribourg-blanc: unspecified simian isolate is highly similar to the yaws subspecies. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013 Apr 18;7(4):e2172. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002172. Print 2013 Apr. 2013-04-18
Pan-Genome and Comparative Genome Analyses of Propionibacterium acnes Reveal Its Genomic Diversity in the Healthy and Diseased Human Skin Microbiome. MBio. 2013 Apr 30;4(3). pii: e00003-13. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00003-13. 2013-04-30
Leucoagaricus gongylophorus produces a diversity of enzymes for recalcitrant plant polymer degradation in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2013 Apr 12. [Epub ahead of print] 2013-04-12
Lineage-specific biology revealed by a finished genome assembly of the mouse. PLoS Biol. 2009 May 5;7(5):e1000112. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000112. Epub 2009 May 26. 2009-05-05
Comparison of the Respiratory Microbiome in Healthy Non-Smokers and Smokers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013 Mar 14. [Epub ahead of print] 2013-03-14
Evolutionary Genomics of Salmonella enterica Subspecies. MBio. 2013 Apr 2;4(2). pii: e00198-13. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00198-13. 2013-04-02
Complete genome sequence of Treponema pallidum strain DAL-1. Stand Genomic Sci. 2012 Oct 10;7(1):12-21. doi: 10.4056/sigs.2615838. Epub 2012 Sep 24. 2012-09-24
Widespread Colonization of the Lung by Tropheryma whipplei in HIV Infection. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013 Feb 7. [Epub ahead of print] 2013-02-07
The genome architecture of the Collaborative Cross mouse genetic reference population. Genetics. 2012 Feb;190(2):389-401. doi: 10.1534/genetics.111.132639. 2012-02-01
Propionibacterium Acnes Strain Populations in the Human Skin Microbiome Associated with Acne. J Invest Dermatol. 2013 Jan 21. doi: 10.1038/jid.2013.21. [Epub ahead of print] 2013-01-21
Biogeography of the ecosystems of the healthy human body. Genome Biol. 2013 Jan 14;14(1):R1. [Epub ahead of print] 2013-01-14
Quantitation and composition of cutaneous microbiota in diabetic and non-diabetic men. J Infect Dis. 2013 Jan 8. [Epub ahead of print] 2013-01-08
Hypothesis testing and power calculations for taxonomic-based human microbiome data. PLoS One. 2012;7(12):e52078. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052078. Epub 2012 Dec 20. 2012-12-20
Increased prevalence of anellovirus in pediatric patients with Fever. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e50937. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0050937. Epub 2012 Nov 30. 2012-11-30
Genomic variation landscape of the human gut microbiome. Nature. 2012 Dec 5. doi: 10.1038/nature11711. [Epub ahead of print] 2012-12-05
Revised Sequence and Annotation of the Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1 Genome. J Bacteriol. 2012 Dec;194(24):7016-7. doi: 10.1128/JB.01214-12. 2012-12-01
Statistical object data analysis of taxonomic trees from human microbiome data. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e48996. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048996. Epub 2012 Nov 9. 2012-11-09
Detection of Viruses in Young Children With Fever Without an Apparent Source Pediatrics. 2012 Nov 5. [Epub ahead of print] 2012-11-05
An integrated map of genetic variation from 1,092 human genomes. Nature. 2012 Nov 1;491(7422):56-65. doi: 10.1038/nature11632. 2012-11-01
Whole-Genome Analysis of a Daptomycin-Susceptible Enterococcus faecium and Its Daptomycin-Resistant Variant Arising During Therapy. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012 Oct 31. [Epub ahead of print] 2012-10-31
Genome Analysis of a Highly Virulent Serotype 1 Strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae from West Africa. PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e26742. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026742. Epub 2012 Oct 17. 2012-10-17
Structure of rrn operons in pathogenic non-cultivable treponemes: sequence but not genomic position of intergenic spacers correlates with classification of Treponema pallidum and T. paraluiscuniculi strains. J Med Microbiol. 2012 Oct 18. [Epub ahead of print] 2012-10-18
Whole Genome Sequence of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum, Strain Mexico A, Suggests Recombination between Yaws and Syphilis Strains. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012 Sep;6(9):e1832. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001832. Epub 2012 Sep 20. 2012-09-20
Identification of novel and cross-species seroreactive proteins from Bacillus anthracis using a ligation-independent cloning-based, SOS-inducible expression system. Microb Pathog. 2012 Sep 10. pii: S0882-4010(12)00158-1. doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2012.08.006. [Epub ahead of print] 2012-09-10
Genomic approaches to studying the human microbiota. Nature. 2012 Sep 13;489(7415):250-6. doi: 10.1038/nature11553. 2012-09-13
Coverage theories for metagenomic DNA sequencing based on a generalization of Stevens' theorem. J Math Biol. 2012 Sep 11. [Epub ahead of print] 2012-09-11
Evaluation of 16S rDNA-Based Community Profiling for Human Microbiome Research PLoS One. 2012;7(6):e39315. Epub 2012 Jun 13. 2012-06-13
Complete genome sequence of Enterococcus faecium strain TX16 and comparative genomic analysis of Enterococcus faecium genomes. BMC Microbiol. 2012 Jul 7;12(1):135. [Epub ahead of print] 2012-07-07
The 1000 Genomes Project: data management and community access. Nat Methods. 2012 Apr 27;9(5):459-62. doi: 10.1038/nmeth.1974. 2012-04-27
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Phenotype, C. difficile and NOD2 Genotype Are Associated with Shifts in Human Ileum Associated Microbial Composition. PLoS One. 2012;7(6):e26284. Epub 2012 Jun 13. 2012-06-13
Sequence analysis of the human virome in febrile and afebrile children. PLoS One. 2012;7(6):e27735. Epub 2012 Jun 13. 2012-06-13
Optimizing read mapping to reference genomes to determine composition and species prevalence in microbial communities. PLoS One. 2012;7(6):e36427. Epub 2012 Jun 13. 2012-06-13
Novel bacterial taxa in the human microbiome. PLoS One. 2012;7(6):e35294. Epub 2012 Jun 13. 2012-06-13
Host genes related to paneth cells and xenobiotic metabolism are associated with shifts in human ileum-associated microbial composition. PLoS One. 2012;7(6):e30044. Epub 2012 Jun 13. 2012-06-13
A framework for human microbiome research. Nature. 2012 Jun 13;486(7402):215-21. doi: 10.1038/nature11209. 2012-06-13
Structure, function and diversity of the healthy human microbiome. Nature. 2012 Jun 13;486(7402):207-14. doi: 10.1038/nature11234. 2012-06-13
Bacterial communities of the coronal sulcus and distal urethra of adolescent males. PLoS One. 2012;7(5):e36298. Epub 2012 May 11. 2012-05-11
The Neonatal Microbiome and Necrotizing Enterocolitis. Nature Precedings doi:10.1038/npre.2010.5285.1, 2010 Nov 18. 2010-11-18
The Human Virome in Children and its Relationship to Febrile Illness. Nature Precedings doi:10.1038/npre.2010.5319.1, 2010 Nov 23. 2010-11-23
Emerging view of the human virome. Transl Res. 2012 Apr 24. [Epub ahead of print] 2012-04-24
Effect of Crohn’s Disease Risk Alleles on Enteric Microbiota Marker Paper Nature Precedings doi:10.1038/npre.2010.4975.1, 2010 Oct 12. 2010-10-12
Cluster analysis of genome-wide expression differences in disease-unaffected ileal mucosa in inflammatory bowel diseases. 2011 IEEE 1st International Conference on Computational Advances in Bio and Medical Sciences (ICCABS), pp 220-225. 2011. 2011-02-03
A non-human primate system for large-scale genetic studies of complex traits. Hum Mol Genet. 2012 May 3. [Epub ahead of print] 2012-05-03
Whole genome sequences of three Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue strains: yaws and syphilis treponemes differ in less than 0.2% of the genome sequence. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012 Jan;6(1):e1471. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001471. Epub 2012 Jan 24. 2012-01-24
Genetic diversity in Treponema pallidum: Implications for pathogenesis, evolution and molecular diagnostics of syphilis and yaws. Infect Genet Evol. 2011 Dec 15. [Epub ahead of print] 2011-12-15
Astrovirus MLB2 Viremia in Febrile Child. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011 Nov;17(11):2050-2. 2011-11-29
Genome sequence of an Australian kangaroo, Macropus eugenii, provides insight into the evolution of mammalian reproduction and development. Genome Biol. 2011 Aug 29;12(8):R81. [Epub ahead of print] 2011-08-29
Phosphate transporters in marine phytoplankton and their viruses: cross-domain commonalities in viral-host gene exchanges. Environ Microbiol. 2011 Sep 14. doi: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2011.02576.x. [Epub ahead of print] 2011-09-14
Graph accordance of next-generation sequence assemblies. Bioinformatics. 2011 Oct 23. [Epub ahead of print] 2011-10-23
The variant call format and VCFtools. Bioinformatics. 2011 Aug 1;27(15):2156-8. Epub 2011 Jun 7. 2011-08-01
The functional spectrum of low-frequency coding variation. Genome Biol. 2011 Sep 14;12(9):R84. [Epub ahead of print] 2011-09-14
A high-resolution map of human evolutionary constraint using 29 mammals. Nature. 2011 Oct 12;478(7370):476-82. doi: 10.1038/nature10530. 2011-10-12
Genetic Basis for In Vivo Daptomycin Resistance in Enterococci N Engl J Med. 2011 Sep 8;365(10):892-900. 2011-09-08
Variation in genome-wide mutation rates within and between human families. Nat Genet. 2011 Jun 12;43(7):712-714. doi: 10.1038/ng.862. 2011-06-12
Demographic history and rare allele sharing among human populations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Jul 19;108(29):11983-11988. Epub 2011 Jul 5. 2011-07-19
Modernizing reference genome assemblies. PLoS Biol. 2011 Jul;9(7):e1001091. Epub 2011 Jul 5. 2011-07-05
Integrated genomic analyses of ovarian carcinoma Nature. 2011 Jun 29;474(7353):609-15. doi: 10.1038/nature10166. 2011-06-29
A dominant mutation in RPE65 identified by whole-exome sequencing causes retinitis pigmentosa with choroidal involvement. Eur J Hum Genet. 2011 Jun 8. doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2011.86. [Epub ahead of print] 2011-06-08
Complete Genome Sequence of Treponema paraluiscuniculi, Strain Cuniculi A: The Loss of Infectivity to Humans Is Associated with Genome Decay. PLoS One. 2011;6(5):e20415. Epub 2011 May 31. 2011-05-31
The volatile microbiome Genome Biol. 2011 May 30;12(5):114. [Epub ahead of print] 2011-05-30
Minimum information about a marker gene sequence (MIMARKS) and minimum information about any (x) sequence (MIxS) specifications. Nat Biotechnol. 2011 May 6;29(5):415-420. [Epub ahead of print] 2011-05-06
Conservation of Ebp-type Pilus Genes among Enterococci and Demonstration of Their Role in Adherence of Enterococcus faecalis to Human Platelets. Infect Immun. 2011 Jul;79(7):2911-20. Epub 2011 Apr 18. 2011-04-18
A vertebrate case study of the quality of assemblies derived from next-generation sequences. Genome Biol. 2011 Mar 31;12(3):R31. [Epub ahead of print] 2011-03-31
Genome sequencing reveals widespread virulence gene exchange among human Neisseria species. PLoS One. 2010 Jul 28;5(7):e11835. 2010-07-28
The Genome Sequence of the Leaf-Cutter Ant Atta cephalotes Reveals Insights into Its Obligate Symbiotic Lifestyle PLoS Genet. 2011 Feb 10;7(2):e1002007. 2011-02-10
Mapping copy number variation by population-scale genome sequencing. Nature. 2011 Feb 3;470(7332):59-65. 2011-02-03
Genome analysis of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum and subsp. pertenue strains: most of the genetic differences are localized in six regions. PLoS One. 2010 Dec 29;5(12):e15713. 2010-12-29
Comparative and demographic analysis of orang-utan genomes Nature. 2011 Jan 27;469(7331):529-33. 2011-01-27
Characteristic male urine microbiomes associate with asymptomatic sexually transmitted infection. PLoS One. 2010 Nov 24;5(11):e14116. 2010-11-24
A new era in the genomics of bacteria. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2010 Oct;13(5):616-8. Epub 2010 Sep 16. 2010-10-01
Identification of Disease-Causing Mutations in Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa (adRP) Using Next-Generation DNA Sequencing. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Sep 22. [Epub ahead of print] 2010-09-22
Diversity of human copy number variation and multicopy genes. Science. 2010 Oct 29;330(6004):641-6. 2010-10-29
A map of human genome variation from population-scale sequencing Nature. 2010 Oct 28;467(7319):1050-1. 2010-10-28
A Catalog of Reference Genomes from the Human Microbiome. Science. 2010 May 21;328(5981):994-999. 2010-05-21
Genome remodelling in a basal-like breast cancer metastasis and xenograft. Nature. 2010 Apr 15;464(7291):989-90. 2010-04-15
Simple sequence repeats in Helicobacter canadensis and their role in phase variable expression and C-terminal sequence switching. BMC Genomics. 2010 Jan 27;11(1):67. [Epub ahead of print] 2010-01-27
A SNP discovery method to assess variant allele probability from next-generation resequencing data. Genome Res. 2010 Feb;20(2):273-80. Epub 2009 Dec 17. 2009-12-17
Enteric defensins are essential regulators of intestinal microbial ecology. Nat Immunol. 2010 Jan;11(1):76-83. Epub 2009 Oct 22. 2009-10-22
The genome sequence of taurine cattle: a window to ruminant biology and evolution. Science. 2009 Apr 24;324(5926):522-8. 2009-04-24
Genome-wide survey of SNP variation uncovers the genetic structure of cattle breeds. Science. 2009 Apr 24;324(5926):528-32. 2009-04-24
Bos taurus genome assembly. BMC Genomics. 2009 Apr 24;10(1):180. [Epub ahead of print] 2009-04-24
VarScan: Variant detection in massively parallel sequencing of individual and pooled samples. Bioinformatics. 2009 Sep 1;25(17):2283-5. Epub 2009 Jun 19. 2009-06-19
Somatic mutations affect key pathways in lung adenocarcinoma. Nature. 2008 Oct 23;455(7216):1069-75. 2008-10-23
Comprehensive genomic characterization defines human glioblastoma genes and core pathways. Nature. 2008 Oct 23;455(7216):1061-8. Epub 2008 Sep 4. 2008-10-23
Characterizing the cancer genome in lung adenocarcinoma. Nature. 2007 Nov 4; [Epub ahead of print] 2007-11-04
A second generation human haplotype map of over 3.1 million SNPs. Nature. 2007 Oct 18;449(7164):851-61. 2007-10-18
Genome-wide detection and characterization of positive selection in human populations. Nature. 2007 Oct 18;449(7164):913-8. 2007-10-18
Identification and analysis of functional elements in 1% of the human genome by the ENCODE pilot project. Nature. 2007 Jun 14;447(7146):799-816. 2007-06-14
Evolutionary and biomedical insights from the rhesus macaque genome. Science. 2007 Apr 13;316(5822):222-34. 2007-04-13
Analyses of deep mammalian sequence alignments and constraint predictions for 1% of the human genome. Genome Res. 2007 Jun;17(6):760-74. 2007-06-17
The DNA sequence of the human X chromosome. Nature. 2005 Mar 17;434(7031):325-37. 2005-03-17
Evolutionarily conserved elements in vertebrate, insect, worm, and yeast genomes. Genome Res. 2005 Jul 15; 2005-07-15
Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome. Nature. 2001 Feb 15;409(6822):860-921. 2001-02-15
Finishing the euchromatic sequence of the human genome Nature. 2004 Oct 21;431(7011):931-45. 2004-10-21