T cell immunity directed against tumor-encoded amino acid substitutions (AAS) occurs in some melanoma patients. This implicates missense mutations (MM) as a source of patient-specific neoantigens. However, a systematic evaluation of these putative neoantigens as validated targets of anti-tumor immunity is lacking. Moreover, whether vaccination can augment such responses is unknown. Here we show that a dendritic cell vaccine increased naturally occurring and revealed new HLA class I-restricted neoantigens in patients with advanced melanoma. The presentation of neoantigens by HLA-A*02:01 in human melanoma was confirmed by mass spectrometry. Vaccination promoted a diverse neoantigen-specific T cell receptor repertoire in terms of both TCRV? usage and clonal composition. Our results demonstrate that vaccination directed at tumor AAS broadens the antigenic breadth and clonal diversity of anti-tumor immunity.