The application of modern high-throughput genomics to the study of cancer genomes has exploded in the past few years, yielding unanticipated insights into the myriad and complex combinations of genomic alterations that lead to the development of cancers. Coincident with these genomic approaches have been computational analyses that are capable of multiplex evaluations of genomic data toward specific therapeutic end points. One such approach is called "immunogenomics" and is now being developed to interpret protein-altering changes in cancer cells in the context of predicted preferential binding of these altered peptides by the patient's immune molecules, specifically human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and II proteins. One goal of immunogenomics is to identify those cancer-specific alterations that are likely to elicit an immune response that is highly specific to the patient's cancer cells following stimulation by a personalized vaccine. The elements of such an approach are outlined herein and constitute an emerging therapeutic option for cancer patients.