Mining novel effector proteins from the esophageal gland cells of Meloidogyne incognita.

Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2014 May 29. [Epub ahead of print]


Meloidogyne incognita is one of the most economically damaging plant pathogens in agriculture and horticulture. Identifying and characterizing the effector proteins, which M. incognita secretes into its host plants during infection, is an important step towards finding new ways to manage this pest. In this study we have identified the cDNAs for 18 putative effectors, i.e., proteins that have the potential to facilitate M. incognita parasitism of host plants. These putative effectors are secretory proteins that do not contain transmembrane domains and whose genes are specifically expressed in the secretory gland cells of the nematode, indicating that they are likely secreted from the nematode through its stylet. We have determined that in the plant cells, these putative effectors are likely to localize to cytoplasm. Furthermore, the transcripts of many of these novel effectors are specifically up regulated during different stages of the nematode's life cycle, indicating that they function at specific stages during M. incognita parasitism. The predicted proteins showed little to no homology to known proteins from free-living nematode species, suggesting that they evolved recently to support the parasitic lifestyle. On the other hand, several of the effectors are part of gene families within the M. incognita genome as well as that of Meloidogyne hapla, which points to an important role that these putative effectors are playing in both parasites. With the discovery of these putative effectors we have increased our knowledge of the effector repertoire utilized by root-knot nematodes to infect, feed, and reproduce on their host plants. Future studies investigating the roles these proteins play in planta will help mitigate the effects of this damaging pest.


Rutter WB, Hewezi T, Abubucker S, Maier T, Huang G, Mitreva M, Hussey R, Baum T.