During the 6 month period following chemoradiotherapy, gliomas frequently develop new areas of contrast enhancement, which are due to treatment effect rather than tumor progression. We sought to characterize this phenomenon in oligodendrogliomas (OG) and mixed oligoastrocytomas (MOA). We reviewed the imaging findings from 143 patients with a WHO grade II or III OG or MOA for evidence of pseudoprogression (PsP) or early tumor progression. We characterized these cases for 1p/19q codeletions by FISH, IDH1 R132H mutation by immunohistochemistry, and TP53, ATRX, and EGFR mutations by next generation sequencing. We then reviewed the pathologic specimens of the patient cases in which a re-resection was performed. We found that OG and MOA that are 1p/19q intact developed PsP at a higher rate than tumors that are 1p/19q codeleted (27 vs. 8?%). Moreover, IDH1 wild-type (WT) tumors developed PsP at a higher rate than IDH1 R132H cases (27 vs. 11?%). Patients with ATRX or TP53 mutations developed PsP at an intermediate rate of 21?%. Ten patients in our cohort underwent a re-resection for early contrast enhancement; these tumors were predominantly 1p/19q intact (90?%) and had a low rate of IDH1 R132H mutation (50?%). 8 of 10 tumors demonstrated primarily treatment effects, while the remaining 2 of 10 demonstrated recurrent/residual tumor of the same grade. Early contrast enhancement that develops during the first 6 months after chemoradiotherapy is typically due to PsP and occurs primarily in OG and MOA that are 1p/19q intact and IDH WT.