We explored molecules involved in in vitro exsheathment of Oesophagostomum dentatum L3s using a proteomic-transcriptomic-bioinformatic approach. Analysis of L3s before, during and after exsheathment identified 11 proteins that were over-expressed exclusively during exsheathment. These proteins (including key enzymes, heat shock, structural and nematode-specific proteins) were inferred to be involved in development, metabolism, structure, motility and/or host-parasite interactions. Some of these molecules represented homologues linked to entry into and exit from the dauer stage in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The approach established here provides a basis for investigations of ecdysis in other strongylid nematodes.