Although a finished human genome reference sequence is now available, the ability to sequence large, complex genomes remains critically important for researchers in the biological sciences, and in particular, continued human genomic sequence determination will ultimately help to realize the promise of medical care tailored to an individual's unique genetic identity. Many new technologies are being developed to decrease the costs and to dramatically increase the data acquisition rate of such sequencing projects. These new sequencing approaches include Sanger reaction-based technologies that have electrophoresis as the final separation step as well as those that use completely novel, nonelectrophoretic methods to generate sequence data. In this review, we discuss the various advances in sequencing technologies and evaluate the current limitations of novel methods that currently preclude their complete acceptance in large-scale sequencing projects. Our primary goal is to analyze and predict the continuing role of electrophoresis in large-scale DNA sequencing, both in the near and longer term.